Educazione interculturale <strong>Educazione interculturale (<em>Intercultural Education</em>) – ISSN 2420-8175</strong> is a scientific, interdisciplinary, open access journal, with the aim of putting into dialogue critical essays, empirical and applied experiences related to the issues of cultural and gender differences, migration, discrimination and inclusion in multicultural contexts. Dipartimento di Scienze Dell’Educazione «Giovanni Maria Bertin» - Università di Bologna en-US Educazione interculturale 2420-8175 <p>The copyrights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (<a href="">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Multilingualism and the welcoming of mother tongues of children of foreign origin in educational and school contexts <p>The call for paper that preceded this Dossier was opened to academic professors and researchers and was aimed at experts, offering an opportunity to take stock of the state of the art of scientific research, studies and educational interventions related to the maintenance of languages (and with them aspects of cultures) of origin in students with a migratory background and, more generally, on the pedagogical and educational implications, in the intercultural sense, of multilingualism. In its very conception, the monographic number proposed to welcome contributions of a theoretical nature and research capable of highlighting the potential applications in the educational and educational field.&nbsp;</p> Stefania Lorenzini Sara Giulivi Copyright (c) 2021 Stefania Lorenzini, Sara Giulivi 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 1 4 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13922 Educating to linguistic and cultural diversity at school: proposals for an “Italian way” to plurilingual education <p>Many European language policy documents have long confirmed the importance of adopting a plurilingual and intercultural perspective in teaching, which could foster inclusion and promote an understanding of linguistic and cultural diversity. After comparing the European notion of <em>plurilingual and intercultural education</em> with the Italian one of <em>democratic linguistic education</em>, the paper discusses the most suitable teaching approaches for the enhancement of plurilingual repertoires in the Italian school, highlighting their points of contact and specificities. The goal is to show how plurilingualism can become an educational and cognitive <em>resource</em> for the benefit of the whole class, as well as an object for enhancing the individual and his/her language biography. The paper thus seeks to propose a possible <em>Italian way</em> of approaching to plurilingual education, capable of benefiting from the historical and sociolinguistic heritage of our country but in continuity with the educational language policies of the European Union. Being conceived in the broadest sense, plurilingualism thus becomes a ground for comparison and mutual (re)cognition in which all languages ​​and varieties of languages in the classroom acquire dignity and value.</p> Edith Cognigni Copyright (c) 2021 Edith Cognigni 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 5 16 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13896 The knowledge and promotion of linguistic heritages in the plurilingual classroom. Guidelines from primary schools on <p>Basing on the experience gained in the project <em>The plurilingual classroom. Research on linguistic complexity for inclusive teaching</em>, we present some recommendations for action with the aim of reaching an improved knowledge of the plurilingual learners’ linguistic repertoires and to make them visible and promote them in the school activities, in order to enrich the linguistic and intercultural experience of the entire class. By means of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, teachers can collect useful elements to shape the teaching activities in the context of the plurilingual classroom. The promotion will be the more impactful, the more it will be able to involve all the languages of the classroom in interdisciplinary activities. Thanks to the attention to the dimension of plurilingualism <em>per se</em>, rather than to the individual languages, it will be possible to avoid counterproductive stimuli on individuals who are reluctant to share their experiences and, at the same time, to involve also tendentially monolingual speakers, guiding them to discover the pervasiveness of plurilingualism in society.</p> Ilaria Fiorentini Chiara Gianollo Copyright (c) 2021 Ilaria Fiorentini, Chiara Gianollo 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 17 32 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13897 Fostering intercultural language education <p>For a long time the removal of the mother tongue was considered by teachers as the indispensable premise for learning the new language, underestimating the value that the interference between the two different language systems can bring in terms of further enrichment of each. Lack of adequate support from educational institutions leads to fragility and identity crises. The school should look at linguistic and cultural diversity, attributing to it an additional and never subtractive value. The teaching of Italian L2 in the school context must respond to two major needs: to allow children and young people who speak other languages to learn Italian in order to communicate at school and outside school; to allow them, at the same time that they learn Italian for basic communicative uses, to continue their studies in the new language, following the other disciplines using affective/relational support methods.</p> Raffaella Biagioli Copyright (c) 2021 Raffaella Biagioli 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 33 45 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13898 Maria Montessori’s Intercultural relevance: childhoods and languages in the educational context <p>This paper will explore some aspects of the Montessori method and pedagogy that are pertinent in rethinking today's increasingly interdependent and heterogeneous educational and school contexts (Zoletto, 2012). Personalized learning and differentiation are constant tensions in Montessori thinking, taking shape in the environment prepared by the adult specifically for each child, where the developmental materials offered are not conditioned by cultural affiliations (Pesci e Trabalzini, 2007) and linguistic plurality is a structural feature of the context (Consalvo, 2020), as occurs in many method schools that are experimenting with bilingual projects. According to Montessori (2000), children acquire language, habits and the characteristics of the community they are part of from the environment, and for this reason school environments and the relational atmospheres based on the uniqueness and differences of each individual are intercultural (Pesci, 2006). The paper offers some initial reflections starting from an investigation of Montessori's intercultural relevance in a multilingual perspective, one of the PRIN (2017) research areas <em>Maria Montessori from the past to the present</em> (Research Units: Bologna, Milan, Rome, Aosta).</p> Francesca Linda Zaninelli Copyright (c) 2021 Francesca Linda Zaninelli 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 46 56 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13899 Is there leeway for Italian policy learning from advanced experiences in home language education? A comparative case study of Austria, Sweden and Italy <p>Notwithstanding the linguistic hyperdiversity that characterizes most European countries and the evidence that points to the value of migrant languages as resources for host societies, home language (HL) education is taken seriously and developed only in a few countries in Europe. The article aims to identify the policy design and implementation elements that can lead to effective HL teaching as well as the contextual and institutional premises that can facilitate or hamper processes of policy learning flowing from advanced HL education experiences (in this study, Austria and Sweden) to prospective policy learners (i.e., in this article, Italy). It does so in light of the lesson-drawing theorization of policy learning. The research design involves a comparison of three country cases, selected on the basis of their respective approaches to HL teaching. This comparison develops in terms of both contextual features and HL teaching policy characteristics, based on data collected from official reports. The research results are then discussed in light of the literature and indicate several lessons to be learned while at the same time pointing to the existence of many facilitators and a few obstacles to the activation of policy learning dynamics, and puts forwards a few ideas for both education policymakers and policy deliverers.</p> Anna Malandrino Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Malandrino 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 57 74 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13900 Plural linguistic biographies. Maps, stories, mixtures <p>«A multiplicity of languages and cultures has entered the Italian school environment»: that is what is written in the introduction of the <em>Indicazioni Nazionali per il curricolo della scuola dell’infanzia e del primo ciclo di istruzione </em>(MIUR, 2012, p. 8). The ministerial document, which forms the framework for school curricula, describes the <em>de facto</em> multilingual situation which can be observed in all kinds of educational environments and in communities. In infancy educational services and in schools, the presence of girls and boys who practice another language at home has long been widespread and on the increase. After describing the pluralistic linguistic repertoires featured in schools, the essay presents some evidence collected in two kindergartens in Milan, as part of a training course. Teachers were invited to use a map of intra-family communication during interviews with foreign parents, in order to outline the children’s language biographies, and to know the strategies and choices of the family. In the second part, the focus will be on some autobiographical fragments taken from literary texts in which the authors highlight the stages and steps they have gone through in their history of <em>native bilinguals</em>. Finally, a review of the legislation dealing with the themes of mother tongues, multilingualism and linguistic diversity in childcare and schools is presented.</p> Graziella Favaro Copyright (c) 2021 Graziella Favaro 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 75 93 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13901 Multilingual pre-school education: teachers’ training and perceived needs. Results of an investigation in the municipality of Brescia and proposals for intervention <p>The multilingualism of the Italian school is a fact, both because of the migratory flows of the last 30 years and for historical reasons. Multilingual language education, also following the studies in the field, is therefore a necessity. The article aims to clarify the theoretical framework of transversal language education, the development of critical multilingual language awareness and it introduces the notions of school discomfort and perceived (formative) need. A case study will then be presented linked to a two-year training provided on the Brescia area, whose population will also be illustrated in terms of students with a migratory background. After presenting the research methods and the survey tools, we will analyze the degree of awareness of the <em>multilingual question</em>&nbsp;of teachers and of responsibility towards the phenomenon, trying to identify the possible causes at the origin of this perceptual position. To conclude, possible training courses will be hypothesized to increase awareness and transform school discomfort into a stimulating challenge for teacher professionalism, with the support of expert figures.</p> Paola Celentin Copyright (c) 2021 Paola Celentin 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 94 115 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13902 Promoting the linguistic and intercultural education of pre-primary learners and of their parents in the context of Italian as an L2 courses in Venice <p>In our paper we will present an experimental proposal of teaching Italian as a second language and promoting plurilingualism and the preservation&nbsp;of the mother tongue in a course organized for children of pre-school services and for their parents. The proposal was financed by a FAMI project, called VOCI, a leaded by the municipality of Venice in partnership with the University Ca’ Foscari. All the project was carried out between 2019 and 2021. The project aimed at experimenting actions to facilitate the learning of Italian as a second language (L2) together with contents of civic education for vulnerable learners. Thanks to recent studies it has emerged the need to promote courses of a second language and at the same time to promote all children’s language repertoires. During the experimental proposal that we will present, we organized such type of courses for minors of pre-school services and for their parents. We focused on vocabulary and syntactical aspects useful to tell stories. We will present the syllabus of the course, the activities and the results of two focus group.</p> Valeria Tonioli Copyright (c) 2021 Valeria Tonioli 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 116 128 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13903 The Pedagogical Role of Heritage Language Education for Children with a Migration Background in Public Kindergartens and Primary Schools: Results of Semi-structured Interviews with Teachers and Stakeholders <p>In Italy, heritage language education (HLE) is mainly offered as an extracurricular activity, and thus its role within the public school system remains in question. This paper sheds light on how teachers and stakeholders perceive the pedagogical role of HLE in kindergarten and primary schools in the Province of Bolzano. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers and stakeholders and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. The results show that HLE plays: 1) a role within personal development, for example, the development of personality and self-esteem; 2) a role within the school system: the data has shown the marginalized position of HLE in the school system as it is perceived as an added value for the individual but hardly as an added value to the school community and society; and 3) a role within teacher collaboration, showing little collaboration between teachers and HL teachers as HLE is not embedded in the school curricula.&nbsp;</p> Barbara Gross Copyright (c) 2021 Barbara Gross 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 129 141 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13904 Supporting subject-related language interaction in multilingual classrooms via role play: the opinion of primary education teachers in Verona <p>According to a collaborative vision of teaching practice, the construction of school contents is based on interaction as the ideal place of learning, thanks to which the learner can negotiate his own personal contribution. Despite its importance, oral interaction in education can be difficult to cultivate without adequate support. This type of task involves the mastery of pragmatic rules and of disciplinary language, two aspects that are as difficult as they are often overlooked. As part of a training intervention aimed at primary school teachers conducted by the research group dedicated to language teaching methodologies of the University of Verona during the school year 2020/2021, the role play linked to disciplinary contents was proposed as a tool to support the development of language skills useful for school subjects in pupils with a migrant background. Firstly, the current article analyses the teachers’ attitudes, gathered during a focus group carried out remotely once the intervention was completed and, secondly, the contribution focuses on a proposal for its practical implementation applied to the study of geography.</p> Alice Fiorentino Copyright (c) 2021 Alice Fiorentino 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 142 154 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13905 “The World in the Classroom”. A Study on Plurilingualism and Inclusion in the Schools at all Educational Stages of Udine <p>For several years we have been carrying out research on the inclusion of minors with a migratory background in the schools of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In line with the findings of other surveys, even in the Region the linguistic repertoires of the various communities have undergone a partial restructuring with the entry of the Italian language alongside, or sometimes in replacement of, that of the country of origin. Over the years, however, the changes have regarded not only the languages present in the repertoires, but also, and above all, the speakers’ uses. The aim was to understand the attitudes that minors have towards their <em>heritage languages</em> and to relate them to actual uses. Our hope is that the data collected will contribute to the dissemination of <em>good practices</em> for the promotion of plurilingualism at school and for the development of inclusive approaches that enhance the skills of all pupils in the class.</p> Fabiana Fusco Copyright (c) 2021 Fabiana Fusco 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 155 165 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13907 Heritage languages in migration and Italian «<em>lingua filiale</em>» Some evidence from Friuli Venezia Giulia <p>The presence of students with a migration background in Friulian primary and middle schools is growing and it is characterized by an increasing degree of variability. More specifically, in recent years the incidence of pupils born in Italy to foreign parents has become higher, and this represents a new concern for the local educational institutions. Field data collected by <em>Impact FVG 2018-20</em> researchers highlight some relevant sociolinguistic traits of this environment and raise new questions. The study of the speakers’ repertoires shows that the traditional L1 and L2 definitions can be applied less precisely than in the past, as new situations and blurred margins of uncertainty appear. This contribution introduces some relevant aspects emerged during the <em>Impact FVG 2018-20</em> study, which suggest to consider under a new light both the condition of the heritage languages, and the domains in daily communication where Italian is extending its presence. This framework seems to invite schools to diversify their actions and to introduce new inclusive strategies, in order to sustain and promote these languages, which at the moment appear to be often connected to a migratory past, and less directly learnt by these young emerging bilingual speakers.</p> Gianluca Baldo Copyright (c) 2021 Gianluca Baldo 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 166 175 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13908 Building accessibility to the disciplinary text: an inclusive resource in multilingual classes at the lower secondary school level <p>In this contribution, we present a reflection on the adaptation of the disciplinary text in lower secondary school explicitly linked to the theme of inclusion in the multilingual class. The adaptation of school texts, usually carried out by teachers as a response for migrant background learners and students with limited language skills who face difficulties in understanding school books, is reformulated to become a functional resource for inclusion that involves the whole class in the operations of facilitation and simplification of the text itself. The article aims to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the adaptation interventions of the disciplinary text in the context of plurilingual education. The perception of trainee teachers about the applicability of these interventions in an inclusive perspective in the multilingual class will then be presented and followed by some examples from the proposals developed by trainee teachers. In conclusion, future lines of actions will be envisaged aimed at raising awareness of inclusive language education in multilingual contexts.</p> Susana Benavente Ferrera Copyright (c) 2021 Susana Benavente Ferrera 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 176 192 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13909 Treasure trove of words. A proposal for multilingual education to train future educators <p>The paper presents a pedagogical reflection on the generative and transformative power of words, valorizing language education as education for originality, according to Giuseppe Lombardo Radice and Tullio De Mauro’s perspective. The main research and most significant documents produced by the European Union over the last 15 years to promote plurilingualism are presented in the second part. The third section of the paper describes a training workshop experience with students from the Educational Sciences course at the University of Catania that was inspired by the European Vocabulary and the personal adoptive language.</p> Gabriella D'Aprile Maura Tripi Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriella D'Aprile, Maura Tripi 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 193 203 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13910 Linguistic heritage and cultural horizons that meet. An intercultural education experience for children hosted by a host educational community <p>The research questions that give rise to the contribution are essentially two: what happens in childhood when a new language becomes part of a child's linguistic heritage, due to a migratory phenomenon that was directly experienced or that, in the past, had affected the child's family (Favaro, 2013)? In what way can the mutual linguistic knowledge and the coexistence of children from different migratory backgrounds, included in a host educational community, be facilitated? The community can be thought of as the ideal place for a <em>multilingual immersion</em>, in which children, through frequent, natural and spontaneous interactions typical of everyday life, can familiarize with a second language, becoming aware not only of different sounds, but also of different cultural meanings. The contribution, in its first part, outlines a theoretical reference framework about the interaction between culture and linguistic variable; in the second part, describes the planning and execution, albeit in the initial phase, of an intercultural education intervention designed for children of other cultural origins, who live in an educational community, to enhance the linguistic and relational aspect of the dialogue among different cultures.</p> Maria Grazia Simone Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Grazia Simone 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 204 215 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13911 Donne, razza e classe, Angela Y. Davis, (traduzione a cura di Marie Moïse e Alberto Prunetti, prefazione a cura di Cinzia Arruzza), Roma, Edizioni Alegre, 2018, (tr. di Women, Race & Class, Ed. Random House, 1981) Dario Firenze Copyright (c) 2021 Dario Firenze 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 232 233 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13912 Education and Intercultural Identity. A Dialogue between Zygmunt Bauman and Agostino Portera Zygmunt Bauman e Agostino Portera A cura di Riccardo Mazzeo Londra, Taylor & Francis, 2021 Federico Zannoni Copyright (c) 2021 Federico Zannoni 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 234 235 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13913 Femonazionalismo. Il razzismo in nome delle donne Sara R. Farris Roma, Alegre, 2019 Alina Dambrosio Clementelli Copyright (c) 2021 Alina Dambrosio Clementelli 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 236 237 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13914 El reto de la convivencia intercultural en Andalucía y Catalunya: una investigación en educación primaria <p>Esta contribución surge de la necesidad de responder a los numerosos retos que afronta la escuela actualmente: globalización, desigualdades sociales, flujos migratorios, etc. En ocasiones, estos pueden perturbar la convivencia y el clima escolar generando conflictos y actitudes discriminatorias en centros educativos, especialmente en aquellos que acogen alumnado culturalmente diverso. La escuela es el lugar idóneo para entrenar la convivencia en favor de una sociedad inclusiva, cohesionada e intercultural. En este sentido, se muestran los resultados tras la realización de encuestas telefónicas a 1.731 escuelas de Educación Primaria (6-12 años) de España, donde un responsable del equipo directivos se encargó de responder. También se exponen los resultados del análisis de 4 etnografías escolares (1 en Andalucía y 3 en Catalunya), en centros de educación primaria con una matrícula de origen extranjero superior al 30% y con experiencia en prácticas interculturales, inclusivas y de convivencia. Así pues, se observa que, a pesar de los bienintencionados esfuerzos por favorecer el clima escolar intercultural y la convivencia, continúan existiendo conflictos culturales, casos de acoso y/o marginación y de exclusión que preocupan a la comunidad educativa y a los que, en ocasiones, no se sabe dar respuesta.</p> Irimia Cerviño Abeledo Copyright (c) 2021 Irimia Cerviño Abeledo 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 19 2 216 231 10.6092/issn.2420-8175/13918